Learn Development at Frontend Masters. Being able to do math in code is nice and a welcome addition to a language that is fairly number heavy. But is it useful?
There definitely are some though. All CSS Preprocessors do have math functions and they are pretty useful. The most useful ability of calc is its ability to mix unitslike percentages and pixels. No Preprocessor will ever be able to do that. It is something that has to happen at render time. It is surprisingly good.
Can I use… is always great for checking out the details there. It can be nice to make a colored module as tall as the parent element in some cases. You want the content to scroll, but you want just the content to scroll, not the entire module.
Just set overflow-y: auto; right? Not quite, because overflow-y is only useful if the content element itself has a set height that can be overflowed.CSS Calc Example Usage Walkthrough
You could set the header to overflow with ellipsis. That would put the dog 50px from the left and 20px from the top of the elements box. But what if you want it 50px from the right and 20px from the bottom?
Not possible with just straight length values. But calc makes it possible! The columns themselves bump right into each other and the columns are made by internal padding inside those columns.
You could remove half the gutter from both if you wanted to keep the proportion more accurate. Now you have two true columns separated by fixed space without needing parent elements or using the internal padding. Speaking of columns, sometimes division math gets messy. Not exactly magic numbersbut difficult to understand at a glance. If you want to replicate what box-sizing does, you could use calc to subtract the values as needed. I think it will be interesting when we can use the attr function in places other than the content property.Learn Development at Frontend Masters.
In some circumstances, we can! We could use the width of the browser window in our CSS math. Assuming the parent is centered. A fixed width like that feels a little red-flaggy i.
Since our demo was an image, you might also do something like. The above idea was taken from a Pen by Brandon Mathis where he combined that idea with wrapping it all in supports. That way you could pull fallback behavior above this in the CSS and let this override it if it can. Seems like a good idea, but in my testing only Firefox got this right.
Maybe nested -rules are a bit buggy yet. Very clever! Do note that both this and the calc version require the parent to be exactly centered in the browser. You might even think: why bother with the right and margin-right?
See the Pen full viewport width image container inside article by Chris Coyier chriscoyier on CodePen. Frontend Masters is the best place to get it. I just found the reason reading this text here :. On Windows, a scroll bar will appear, slightly shrinking the viewport. On OS X, a smart scroll bar will appear over the content which shows and hides automatically, thus not affecting the viewport.
How is that relevant? In the same idea, here an code pen to get Image sized to half of the viewport with bootstrap Great summary, Chris! Great minds and all that. Personally, I prefer the calc version. Allow me to be a self-quoting dork to explain why :. Anyone has a solution for that? The truth is, while this technique surely would be ideal in a perfect world, the current spec for the viewport units is so dumb it prevents us from using it, as well as vw-based grids.In this chapter, we'll take a look at how the various CSS layout properties can be used to influence the sizing, positioning and overall layout of a page.
I have also included a number of puzzles to help you review the things you have learned in the previous chapters. This chapter is organized by use case rather than by property or feature. First, I'll talk about sizing and positioning, then I'll focus on two specific use cases: grid-based layouts and horizontal and vertical centering.
Sizing-related techniques allow you to define how a particular element should be sized; how it should grow and how it should shrink as the viewport size changes. Height transfer. Unlike basic HTML documents, web applications often want to make use of all of the available space in the viewport while avoiding scrolling.
However, a typical HTML document contains several root elements that are display: block by default.
If those blocks do not have a specified height, they will simply use the height of their content rather than the height of the viewport. CSS3 adds the new vh and vw units, which are always relative to viewport height and viewport width, which makes it much easier to size elements relative to viewport size since you no longer need to make every parent in the tree transfer the height of the viewport. It is hard to align something to the bottom of the parent box in CSS 2.
Setting min-height can ensure that a div that is normally positioned e. Combining flex-grow: 0 and flex-grow: 1. Flexbox provides a powerful toolkit for controlling how elements are sized. Philip Walton's Solved by Flexbox covers several additional layouts, but one particular technique I'd like to highlight is using a combination of flex-grow: 0 and flex-grow: 1 to produce a bottom or top aligned box, such as a footer or a header.
The trick is simple: place the main content inside a flex-grow: 1 flex item, and place the footer or header in a flex-grow: 0 flex item.
How to Create a Responsive Square with CSS
Assuming the flex parent is sized as a percentage of its parent, the main content container will take up all the space that is left over, pushing the footer to the bottom or leaving the header at the top. Sizing with constraints. You can make use of the fact that you can fill in a missing value through the constraint-based sizing algorithm for position: absolute elements; this also works for display: block but only for width.
Positioning is at the heart of layout: perhaps the most important task is to place elements in the correct relative positions across all screen sizes.
The techniques in this section allow you to accomplish that. However, in most cases, you don't actually want to position a div relative to the viewport - you want it to be positioned relative to particular parent. You can use a combination of position: relative and position: absolute to accomplish this. Set the parent to position: relativeand then use position: absolute for the child element.
Setting position: relative does not affect the positioning of elements in normal flow unless you add offsets, but does cause those elements to be considered to be positioned. Negative margins. Margins in CSS can be negative; typically this feature is not very useful because it is hard to use correctly when the elements in question have a size that is not fixed.It can be used anywhere a CSS data type represents a distance value. Lengths can be used in numerous CSS properties, such as width, height, margin, padding, border-width, font-size, and text-shadow.
A Couple of Use Cases for Calc()
It is not currently used in any CSS properties. It is used in animation, transition, and related properties. It is often used to define a size as relative to an element's parent object. Numerous properties can use percentages, such as width, height, margin, padding, and font-size.
Integers can be used in numerous CSS properties, such as column-count, counter-increment, grid-column, grid-row, and z-index. The calc function takes a single expression as its parameter, with the expression's result used as the value. The expression can be any simple expression combining the following operators, using standard operator precedence rules :. The operands in the expression may be any CSS data type represents a distance value.
You can use different units for each value in your expression, if you wish. You may also use parentheses to establish computation order when needed.
In this example, the CSS creates a banner that stretches across the window, with a pixel gap between both sides of the banner and the edges of the window:. Another use case for calc is to help ensure that form fields fit in the available space, without extruding past the edge of their container, while maintaining an appropriate margin.
Then, to ensure that input fields retain an appropriate size, we use calc again to establish that they should be the width of their container minus 1em. You can also use calc with CSS variables. Consider the following code:. In short: a calc inside of a calc is identical to just parentheses. When calc is used for controlling text size, be sure that one of the values includes a relative length unitfor example:.
Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox. Sign in to enjoy the benefits of an MDN account. The source for this interactive example is stored in a GitHub repository. The compatibility table on this page is generated from structured data. Last modified: Mar 31,by MDN contributors. Related Topics. Learn the best of web development Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox.
The newsletter is offered in English only at the moment. Sign up now.The height CSS property specifies the height of an element. By default, the property defines the height of the content area. If box-sizing is set to border-boxhowever, it instead determines the height of the border area.
The source for this interactive example is stored in a GitHub repository. The min-height and max-height properties override height. It is often used to define a size as relative to an element's parent object. Numerous properties can use percentages, such as width, height, margin, padding, and font-size. Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox.
Sign in to enjoy the benefits of an MDN account. The compatibility table on this page is generated from structured data. Last modified: Jan 31,by MDN contributors. Related Topics. CSS CSS Reference CSS Box Model Guides Introduction to the CSS basic box model Mastering margin collapsing Properties height margin-bottom margin-left margin-right margin-top margin-trim max-height max-width min-height min-width overscroll-behavior overscroll-behavior-block overscroll-behavior-inline overscroll-behavior-x overscroll-behavior-y padding padding-bottom padding-left padding-right padding-top.
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Adds support for the CSS data type represents a distance value. Lengths can be used in numerous CSS properties, such as width, height, margin, padding, border-width, font-size, and text-shadow. The percentage is calculated with respect to the height of the generated box's containing block. If the height of the containing block is not specified explicitly i.
A percentage height on the root element is relative to the initial containing block. Chrome Full support 1. Edge Full support Firefox Full support 1.To this day I stumbled across various approaches to solve this problem. This approach makes use of the fairly well supported flexbox layout. By utilizing the property of tables to distribute the given space between the rows and assigning fixed heights to some element, the other elements end up using the remaining height.
This approach makes use of the new css function calc link to assign a height that is calculated from the total height minus the height of the other elements.
There are also other ways to archive this effect e. Excellent post, thanks a lot! I used solution 4, the css3 calc solution and changed the height expression — like Ahmad — to calc vh — px …. This is an interesting solution for the sticky header problem! I like that the scrollbar only spans the overflowing container. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Toggle navigation. Listen to some relaxing music while reading my blog post Solution 1 — Flex This approach makes use of the fairly well supported flexbox layout. Related posts: Beautiful CSS3 loading animation overlay with custom message I recently stumbled over a beautiful loading animation that is completely done in CSS3 link : All i had to do was fixing a small bug Asynchronous does not work from inside the same EJB.
A broad look into the mobile network future. All websites should display information like that! This is really a good article which helps me a lot in my work.
The viewport-percentage lengths are relative to the size of the initial containing block. When the height or width of the initial containing block is changed, they are scaled accordingly. So, by using viewport-percentage lengthsHTML elements adjust automatically when the height or width of the screen changes.
Imagine you want to create a website with two sections, each one of them with the size of the browser window. Viewport-percentage lengths browser support Luckily, all modern browsers support them. Tags: browser window full screen viewport viewport percentage lengths viewport relative lengths Subscribe Let's get in touch If you found this post useful, you can subscribe and I will send you an email once a month with latest posts and tutorials.
Can you please share a link to your website, so I can check why this method might not be working in your case and try to help you out. Thats very rude of you. Author has told what works and if need you might put your point forward in a gentle way. Atleast the Author is trying to help out while you are demotivating him. Be human. Ali, Where do you come from? Did your parent or teacher never give you any lesson about manners? Hi Stan, thanks for posting this tip!
The height works properly but the width gets cut in half. I can see you are using vh for both height and width. Basta util lo del VH, Bendiciones. This is perfect. Thanks very much: finally found a way to put my footer at the bottom of any screen. Appreciate your comment! Great documentation,Thanks for sharing this tip!. I was working for a project and I was using height: webkit-fill-available; but i realize that its not compatible with other web explorers.
So this solution its really good for having the height size resolution. Your email address will not be published. Leave this field empty. Dec 17, Stan Kostadinov 30 Comments. Tags: browser window full screen viewport viewport percentage lengths viewport relative lengths. Let's get in touch If you found this post useful, you can subscribe and I will send you an email once a month with latest posts and tutorials.
Ali Raza says:. March 22, at pm. Stan Stanhub says:. May 11, at pm. Agis says:. May 30, at am.